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release details

these are given in a table in the following order:

also given, where relevant, are details of the availability of the release: singles generally have a short “shelf-life” and the details usually relate to limited-edition or promotional items; finally a reproduction of the sleeve or booklet cover appears as an aid to identifying the item.

territory

the area of the world where this release was officially distributed

key to territories :

code territory
au Australia, usually including New Zealand
ie Irish Republic; usually also including UK distribution
jp Japan
uk United Kingdom or Great Britain and Northern Ireland usually including European distribution
us United States of America

label

the company issuing this release – usually given in the form found on the item; if more than one company is involved (as sometimes happens when an artist’s own company licenses stuff for release) the producing or ‘distributing’ company is preferred; if this is not obvious both companies are shown

format

this field shows the ‘carrier’ format of the release (that is, basically, CD/cassette/vinyl and size)

key to formats :

code description
CD compact disc
2CD two compact discs
CDS compact disc single (5 inch)
CD3 compact disc single (3 inch)
CD recordable compact disc (CD-R) [and in above combinations]
MC music cassette
MCS music cassette single
LP long-playing record (12 inch, 33 1/3 rpm)
7" seven inch single (45 rpm)
12" twelve inch single (45 rpm)

packaging

this field shows, if necessary, the packaging of the sound-carrier item specified in the preceding column: unless shown otherwise cassettes are in standard musicassette (‘cassette tape’) boxes; seven and twelve inch vinyl singles are in appropriately sized picture sleeves; and vinyl LPs are in plain inner bags inside non-folding sleeves.

key to CD cases :

code explanation additional codes explanation
B card box
C card sleeve b plastic bubble surround
Cm Compac (bit like Digipak)
D Digipak® D double (i.e. 2 trays)
s single flap
d double flap
J (standard) jewel case D double (i.e. 2 trays)
2 hinged double sided tray
S singles’ (slim-line) case
SnP snap-pack picture sleeve
W plastic wallet l with label/insert

key to 7" and 12" singles and cassette tapes packaging :

code explanation
- standard (discs: plain sleeve; cassettes: plastic box with picture card insert)
ps picture sleeve

catalogue number

the catalogue number carried by the item is shown

if available, the EAN (European Article Number) or other product barcode data is shown (in full); in recent years many large companies have used the bulk of this as the catalogue number

release date

where possible, the actual release date is given; notes are provided of any alternative scheduled dates. The date is given as accurately as research so far allows: if you can refine the information, please contact the discographer.

To avoid any confusion over presentation of dates (US/European/Japanese), levels of ISO8601 are used as appropriate, that is, in short, dates with a format ccyy[-mm[-dd]].

cover art

where reproduced, the cover art is shown as an aid to identifying the release; sometimes it has been taken from publicity materials, which are assumed to have copyright clearance for these purposes, otherwise any art-work copyright holder may contact me to have the reproduction removed from the site if they do not approve of this use

availability

we attempt to give up to date information on whether the release is easy or difficult to find, usually only for limited-edition or promotional items

notes

occasionally, additional information about releases is given here; for example, notes about variant titles or different packaging; also, any interesting messages scratched/stamped on vinyl masters’ run-out grooves are reported


personnel

Currently these details are not complete for singles releases – check the individual tracks’ data by following the links from the titles in the track listing section of the single’s page. Usually these details, where given, are gleaned from the recording inserts and thus the quality and quantity of the information varies widely. For many of Eddi’s b-sides details have been gathered by individuals from various sources, as the singles releases rarely carry much recording detail.

musicians

here the members of the ‘house band’ (if any) are named first; arranged roughly in ‘musical score’ order, that is from top down: lead instruments (guitar, keyboards), filling instruments (rhythm guitar, keyboards), bass and drums.

additional musicians are listed separately, including backing vocalists and guests, arranged as seems appropriate

don’t forget that you can usually obtain more specific details for who plays what on each track by following the link from the track title on this ‘album’ page to the track’s own page

technical

under this heading are noted persons responsible for getting the sounds from the musicians to the carrier medium

produced by

The person charged with over-seeing the recording process. Usually appointed by artist and/or the record company, the actual input of the producer varies widely with the person from those with a close working relationship with the artist in the studio to those who sit with their feet up doing a crossword puzzle!

co-produced by

This term is not often encountered, in my experience. If not a courtesy credit, it presumably indicates an additional over-seeing role, perhaps on the part of someone involved in engineering the recording.

recorded by

I have preferred this term to the more usual “engineered by” because covers a wider possible range of activities, more suited to some of the smaller scale recording undertaking by Eddi and her colleagues. Sleeves and booklets accompanying recordings vary greatly in the level of detail they provide on these technical matters.

mixed by

The person carrying out the engineering task involved in making a two-track (that is stereo) ‘master’ from the multi-track recording created in the studio(s). The artist and the producer are usually involved at this stage too and their names are not repeated here. Absence of information here results either from the information not being available or from the absence of any additional persons being involved (often sleeves or booklets accompanying releases not clear which).

remixed by

occasionally, an artist or their record company are not happy with the sound of a track. If the material is considered satisfactory in itself, the answer may be to re-mix the track, creating a differently sounding version from the same multi-track recording. For example different instruments may become more or less prominent against the vocal line(s). When overseen by a different recording engineer, this person is credited separately as a re-mix engineer.

One of the chief uses of re-mixing was to create versions of tracks suitable for broadcast on radio, where the available sound frequency range may be limited by the frequency of the carrier signal and where the ambient listening conditions, for example in a car, may require a smaller dynamic range. This is believed to have been among the reasons for Thomas Dolby’s involvement with Eddi’s recording of ’What you do with what you’ve got’.

In the 1990s the term ‘re-mix’ was applied to the much more radical process of adding new sounds or sections to a track or to recasting it as, usually, a dance track. As far as I am aware, this has not yet happened to Eddi’s work.

mastered by

Strictly, mastering is the process of creating a CD or LP stamper or tape copy-master from which to manufacture the physical carriers of the sound recording. Because of the skill required in providing the additional processing at this stage to overcome flaws in particular media, or adapt the recording for, say, radio-play, special credit is often given. Sometimes it is not clear if the term is being used to cover work on mixing the recording also.

re-mastered by

Usually involved during the re-issue of a release, or its release on a new ‘carrier’ (e.g. CD for a title issued previously only on LP), the task is the same as in the original mastering unless the original studio recordings are no longer available, when it can include rescuing the best possible quality from other sources which have survived.

Of the technical details, the producer(s) is almost always given, but details of the engineering (“recorded by”), mixing and mastering are again usually the result of luck.


tracks

listing the tracks on the release or releases. A pragmatic approach to showing variant track listings has been taken: where different formats or variant track listings dictate, the page is divided into separate sections with appropriate details in each.


promo

this section gives details, where known, of any promotional releases associated with the single; if appropriate, the layout is the same as that for the releases proper, including the cover art again only if this differs


chart placings

are given where known; the ‘official’ chart for the release territory is used: in UK the ones published in Music Week, the trade newspaper, in latter years these have been compiled by CIN charting the top 75 singles; in USA the Billboard chart is used (top 100).


bibliography

here are given details of any relevant printed or web materials relating to this release.


commentary

this section is used for any tit-bits of information that the discographer has considered worth typing.


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